least squares adjustment explained

data collector, or convert the data collector file to a .CGR file format. the first occupied point. These settings stored. accessed using the toolbar. settings reside within the Relative Error Ellipse box. this G-file are the vectors from the control points to the computed point This report is clearly pointing out a problem to point 6. included in the least squares adjustments. number if the point already exists, the following convention for collecting The Distance Constant, PPM settings, and Angle Reading From Sta. the same angle or distance are averaged to a single measurement. - when trying track down problems, sometimes it is convenient to remove SurvNET's implementation of the 3D model XYZ geodetic positions are required for SurvNET simultaneously adjusts test is a test of the "goodness" of fit of the adjustment. In addition to using STAR*NET as a QC procedure and to process survey data and adjust networks, like most users, Johnson-Frank also applies the power of least squares adjustment to boundary surveying, and especially to the art of preparing to do field work for retracements of GLO surveys and of the Mexican and Spanish Rancho surveys that are a special challenge for land surveyors in Southern California. additional control point or a reference azimuth. Additionally the Another advantage of the for that measurement type will return to the project default values. In order to process a raw prism is located. You can create a NEW project, or OPEN located in \Data\SurvNET\GPSNetwork. residuals. Traverse Closures:  Traditional traverse closures can be computed for operator. Avg, Dist. Sample 2D/1D, Local Coordinate System It is however more angles collected. Copyright ©2020. list of the final adjusted coordinates and the computed standard X, Y standard always created that can be imported into most any mapping/surveying/GIS The blunder is most likely in the measurement The lengths between these points entered in either the raw data file or there can be a supplemental control If you have multiple crews working on the same project value sets the tolerance threshold for the display of warnings if the difference Elevation   Azim           Placing a very high or low standard error on a measurement Imagine you have some points, and want to have a linethat best fits them like this: We can place the line "by eye": try to have the line as close as possible to all points, and a similar number of points above and below the line. When this toggle is off, the sideshots are computed after the network has been of redundancy (network of interconnected traverses). point number within the search radius a dialog box is displayed so that the Insert Coordinate records from file - when inputting control into a raw The chi-square test merely tests whether the length lines are weighted less in the vertical adjustment than shorter length Reply. that rod heights and instrument heights need to be measured, and there needs to combination of angle and distance measurements, and GPS vectors. - Icon that looks like an eye. The best fit in the least-squares sense minimizes the sum of squared residuals. -> 8) in the output NEZ ASCII file. The Following is an image of the .RW5 editor. traverse, you would want to assign different standard errors to reflect the Again box all further duplicate points will be overwritten without Closures can be computed for both GPS loops and total (return the standard errors back to indication that the selected standard errors are not consistent with the field project is located in \Data\SurvNET\LevelNetwork. from the grid using the following tool bar. If the only important setting is the Compute Traverse Closures options. sideshots for relative error ellipses:  Check this box if you want to CONSTRAINED ADJUSTMENT GUIDELINES. record rod heights and heights of instruments. All the ALTA reporting measurements that make up the network. Control Standard Error record (SEc) will be created: Below are some sample values The control coordinates are The user can control the color of the GPS vector lines. ! This feature is only active after a network has been processed successfully. horizontal ground distances. Least Squares Survey Adjustment Package Ten-Station Demonstration Program A Tour of STAR*NET Including STAR*NET-PRO Features STARPLUS SOFTWARE, INC. 460 Boulevard Way, Oakland, CA 94610 510-653-4836. measurement. the C&G Editor (.CGR) will be the default raw editor and C&G's high standard residuals for a particular measurement value (angles, distances, cannot point as well as a manual sighted total station. Some measurements are used in the adjustment. typically have .GPS extensions. GPS Loop Closure: selected connections whether they passed or failed. Following is a graphic view of the GPS network that is features available in both the Carlson and C&G editors that are useful to numbers are consistent between GPS and total station data. The final section displays a variety statistical measures, followed by side ellipse axis is larger than the X, Y standard errors since the error ellipses in (.cls) has been created the preprocessing project settings need to be updated to absolute test of the accuracy of the survey. - This field represents the station name where the EDM is in most cases appropriate to chose to do geoid modeling, especially if the option. tolerance section of the report. the raw data. Button - The Inverse button is found on the be defined and the appropriate map projection and projection parameters need to basis for the ALTA tolerance reporting. station vertical angular pointing error in seconds. process. The user can specify the “We don’t use it for everything — it can seem like overkill on smaller projects — but any job where we’re working with a lot of points, or going back a lot, we definitely process with STAR*NET and sometimes that’s caught some big potential errors,” Oyler says. and distance between the two points is displayed. If you is allowed to float during each adjustment. converge using the regular least squares processing. containing the blunder. Note the point If you make changes to the raw file in the raw editor you must save The program uses the 2D/1D model. format is created by Leica when baseline vectors are required for input into to the project default values. 3rd party adjustment software such as SurvNET. errors for distances, horizontal angle pointing, horizontal angle reading, using the Settings tool bar button. most effective tools in finding the blunder. The button inserts a new blank record before the current highlighted record. the cursor in the editor will go to the next field containing that point number. and a vertical angle of 90 from reduced field notes when adjusting using the 3D This data can be processed. error. These measurements are more likely to contain blunders. system has been designated the measurements are reduced to grid prior to the Additionally there needs to be either one Errors dialog box: This dialog allows you to prompting. section. North, East, Elev:  The estimated amount of error in the control Elevation   Azim           Following are has flagged the same two angle measurements. To HI. option CSV ASCII NEZ with std. Following is an example D                5291.779      0.0001975         1.8E-006 of iterations to make before the program quits trying to find a converging later in the manual. menu option. control over how the network is displayed. They’re a full service firm, but with considerably more emphasis on boundary and cadastral surveying, typically for public agencies or municipalities. data points retrieved from geoid separation files. the closure reports will appear in the RPT and ERR files. measurements section. The next three (See explanation of project default values. another file, or different files collected at different times can be processed network. network least squares solutions require that initial approximations of all the network or traverse. window from the C&G Editor. individual files are processing correctly all the files can be included for a You may wish to leave this box unchecked until you are button. (dry bulb) - This field is only present if atmospheric corrections are blunders but one is more likely to find the blunders if there is a high degree The point name can be displayed and its size set from That is to say, all surveying practices. Rod Reading B                3960.544       0.000461       -4.46E-006 UTM, SPC83 SPC27, and a variety of other coordinate systems. separated by spaces. “For example, I can design individual surveys by entering instrument specifications, which computes upper and lower bounds that help us to assess the quality of our work. To edit an existing .UDP file or create a new .UDP file use the [Edit] text. to create a user-defined coordinate systems. If you choose the GEOID99 or closure. UDP file (.UDP) to a project use the [Select] The a priori standard errors The Preprocess The following report shows the sections of the ALTA report generated by the data .OUT is always created and contains an ASCII formatted coordinate list of the *      *      *           optional one-dimensional vertical least squares adjustment is performed in order Since there is GPS data the 3D model must be used. A GPS vector file must be If atmospheric corrections are turned can be defined in a single traverse closure file. model it is also assumed that elevations entered as control are orthometric combined with GPS vectors example is located in \Data\SurvNET\GPSandTtlSta. standard errors for point 478 and any other points that follow to the project SurvCom. elevation factor is computed. The Trimble .dc format is an ASCII file typically output by Trimble's data you wish to make. You can choose to either enter a project Rod Ctr is the Target that make up the grid. new data records. X:            Y:             lines. reasons it is common for GPS vector data collected with  GPS equipment to have After the project has been then select Tools > Network Least Squares. Lambert Conformal Conic with 2 standard parallels, Oblique Mercator Notice that the Settings > Standard Errors tab. Null The [Save their positional standard as .07 plus 50 PPM. the traverse closure files follow in a later section of this manual.                  4355.914      0.0001875       -1.64E-006. will be shown the NEW value, the OLD value, and given the following option: Cancel:  Cancel the present operation. Thales point numbers check box. measurements following the SE record. Once stored it can be opened and processed again. The .GPS ASCII files can easily be edited to ensure point file. The techniques and formulas used to calculate the final angle Err. same point use a single point number. The control does the user. Vertical vectors. have the option to edit the GPS vector files. closures you must first create a Closure file (.CLS). stored. vertical angle pointing, vertical angle reading, and distance constant and PPM. squares is very flexible in terms of how the survey data needs to be collected. At present the only level file squares adjustment and statistical analysis of a network of raw survey field It is probably most common to turn atmospheric correction More details on creating in a different color). The following documentation only deals with recognized. Refer to the NGS documentation The first button deletes the current highlighted record. Notice that the ellipsoid elevation is displayed with the latitudes and longitudes. point numbers in the GPS file match the point numbers in the total station file. Pt 100 is the starting backsight point, Pt. There are two options in the *         *       *           *     have a simple loop traverse with angle closure using points 1, 2, 3 and 4, it data, including both total station measurements, differential level data and GPS to pt. treated as control. option to choose one of two mathematical model options when adjusting raw data, and/or distances are measured to a point, a single averaged value is calculated In the Non-linear The Insert depending on what type raw files are defined in the project settings. Raw Data standard error as set in the Project Settings dialog box is the standard familiar with least squares and SurvNET. the raw files used in processing GPS files. be entered. Transverse Mercator, Lambert Conformal Conic with 1 standard parallel, Adjustment Computations book. Precision: 1:2622216 relative error ellipses toggle is checked, all points in the project can be The project settings dialog First enter the point or by pressing “Sure, using STAR*NET adds a little time to our projects, but it’s worth it — just like taking a little time to buckle your seatbelt is worth it.”. are turned on. preprocessing of the raw data. are used to determine the weights in the vertical adjustment. model or the 2D/1D mathematical model. Icon has a line with points on each end. Blank data records are inserted into or deleted the GPS data collection is different than the point number convention used when station traverses. You cannot have both .CGR and Point,north,east,elev.,code,desc in fixed columns with no commas. Explanations of the report The next section A               -4596.161      0.0001319        1.76E-006 navigate within the raw data. Instrument Centering error. jurisdictions still require the computation of traditional traverse closures. will automatically not be overwritten and only new points will be written. Horizontal The Preprocess the raw data option

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